What are the differences and connections between foreign trade and international trade
I. International TradeInternational trade is the product of the development of human society to a certain historical stage and refers to the exchange of goods between countries (regions) of the world. It includes the exchange of tangible goods (physical goods) as well as intangible goods (services, technology, education, consultation, etc.). This exchange activity, from the perspective of a country (region), is called the foreign trade of that country (region). In the world, the total foreign trade of all countries (regions) constitutes international trade, also known as world trade.Ii. Foreign TradeForeign trade, also known as "foreign trade" or "import and export trade", refers to the exchange of goods and services between one country (region) and another country (region). This trade consists of import and export. For countries (regions) that import goods or services, that is, imports. For countries (regions) that ship goods or services, that is exports. This began to emerge and develop in slave and feudal societies, and grew more rapidly in capitalist societies. Its nature and function are determined by different social systems.Both foreign trade and international trade refer to the exchange of goods across national borders. From this point of view, they are consistent. But there are also obvious differences. The former focuses on the exchange of goods between one country (region) and another. The latter focuses on the worldwide exchange of goods between all countries (regions) in the world.
The concept of trade and business
1, tradeTrade is business. Trade in goods or services on the basis of equality and mutual desire. Trade takes place in the marketplace, and the most primitive form of trade is barter, the direct exchange of goods or services. Modern trade is generally replaced by a medium (**) of equal trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade and more than two traders is called multilateral trade.International Trade, also known as Trade, refers to the Trade of goods and services across national borders. It is generally composed of import Trade and export Trade, so it can also be called import and export Trade. International trade is also called world trade. Import and export trade can adjust the utilization rate of domestic production factors, improve international supply and demand relations, adjust economic structure, and increase fiscal revenue.2, business"Business" is more colloquial, all industries need to deal with affairs, but usually bias refers to the sales transactions, because the unit still end up any company is selling products, sales and service, sales, technology, etc. The ultimate goal of business is to "sell products for profit". So it's usually the salesman equals the salesman, and that's why the business is doing or dealing with business related activities. Business is also a channel, which means the relationship between producers and outlets is established through channels. And the salesman played an important role in that. The work of the salesman has a direct impact on the relationship among producers, outlets and consumers.With the healthy development of e-commerce, the infrastructure, according to the demand of the domestic small and medium-sized enterprise, and based on the electronic commerce on the basis of a new business model called electronic business.As production enterprise, just put the net together to produce a product by other industries in the form of publishing business, using the powerful background management system, can the remote management agent, control product transaction process, operation, never leave home can also achieve the purpose of market development around the.As a salesman, you can apply for a job as a salesman on the Internet according to your geographical position, good at the industry, the social circle and so on, so as to develop the local market for the enterprise and earn a lot of income.
Why develop international trade
International trade emerged and developed when the productive forces of human society developed to a certain stage. It is a historical category. The generation of international trade must have two basic conditions, one is to have the existence of the state, the second is produced for the need of the international division of labor, and the international division of labor only on the basis of the social division of labor and private ownership may form. These conditions are not immediately available in human society, but gradually formed with the continuous development of social productive forces and the expansion of social division of labor.Primitive society's tradeAt the beginning of the primitive society, the human ancestors to gang group, fishing trappers, extremely low level of productivity, people is in a state of natural division of labor, group work can only maintain the most basic survival needs, there is surplus products to exchange, therefore no foreign trade.The first social division of labor in human history, namely the division of animal husbandry and agriculture, promoted the development of the productive forces of primitive society, and products had a small amount of surplus besides maintaining their own needs. In order to obtain the products not produced by the group, there was a primitive barter exchange of surplus products between clans or tribes. Of course, this exchange is also extremely primitive and accidental exchange of things.In a long period of time, with the continuous development of social productivity, handicrafts were separated from agriculture and became independent departments, forming the second great division of labor in human society. As a result of the emergence of handicraft industry, there has been a direct exchange of production - commodity production. When products are produced specifically to meet the needs of others, the exchange of goods gradually becomes a regular activity. With the expansion of commodity production and Commodity Exchange, money appeared, and then Commodity Exchange became the commodity circulation with money as the medium. This further promotes the formation of private ownership and class. Due to the increasing frequency of Commodity Exchange and the expanding geographical scope of exchange, the merchant class specialized in trade has been created. The third social division of labor further expanded the production and circulation of goods. The production and circulation of commodities are more frequent and extensive, thus the formation of class and state successively. Thus, at the end of the principled society, the circulation of goods began to transcend national boundaries, which resulted in foreign trade.The three major divisions of labor in human society have each promoted the development of social productivity and the increase of surplus products, as well as the development of private ownership and the formation of slavery. At the end of primitive society and the beginning of slave society, with the emergence of class and state, the exchange of goods went beyond national boundaries, and trade between nations was born. It can be seen that on the basis of the development of social productivity and social division of labor, the expansion of commodity production and Commodity Exchange, as well as the formation of countries, are the necessary conditions for the emergence of international trade.International trade in slave societiesIn slave societies, where the natural economy was dominant, it was characterized by self-sufficiency and produced primarily for consumption, not for exchange. Although the slave society produced handicrafts and commodities, they were insignificant in the production of the whole society of a country. At the same time, because of social productivity level is low and backward production technology, transportation pallet, poor road conditions, seriously hindered the exchange of people and things, foreign trade limited in a small range, its size and content are subject to restrictions.Slave society is a society in which slave owners own the means of production and slaves, and the foreign trade of slave society serves the slave owners. At that time, the important mark of slave-owners' wealth was how many slaves they possessed, so the main commodity in the international trade of slave society was slavery. It is recorded that Athens in Greece was once a center for slave trade. In addition, food, wine and other luxuries enjoyed by the slave-owners, such as gems, spices and fabrics, were important commodities in international trade at that time.During the period of slavery, countries engaged in international trade mainly included Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, etc. These countries mainly engaged in trafficking in the eastern Mediterranean and the black sea coastal areas. China entered slave society in the xia and shang dynasties, and trade was concentrated in the countries along the Yellow River basin.Foreign trade did not play an important role in the slave economy, but it promoted the development of the handicraft industry.International trade in feudal societyThe international trade in feudal society had a greater development than that in slave society. In the early feudal society, the feudal land rent took the form of labor and material goods. In the middle period, with the development of commodity production, the feudal land rent changed into the form of monetary land rent, and the commodity economy got further development. In the late feudal society, with the development of urban handicraft industry, capitalist factors had given birth to production, and both commodity economy and foreign trade had developed rapidly.In feudal society, the feudal landlord class dominated, and foreign trade served the feudal landlord class. The slave trade largely disappeared in international trade. In addition to luxury goods, the main commodities of international trade are domestic handicrafts and foodstuffs, such as cotton goods, carpets, porcelain, grain and wine. These goods are mainly for Kings, monarchs, churches, feudal landlords and some wealthy city dwellers.In feudal society, the scope of international trade expanded significantly. Trade between Asian countries has gradually expanded from offshore to offshore. As early as the western han dynasty period, China has opened up from changan through central Asia to west Asia and European overland trade route, the silk road, and the Chinese silk, tea and other goods to the west, in HuiLiangMa, seeds, herbs and accessories, etc. By the tang dynasty, in addition to the land trade, it also opened up the sea trade to the Persian gulf, Korea and Japan. During the song and yuan dynasties, due to the development of shipbuilding technology, maritime trade was further developed. In the Ming dynasty yongle, who led the merchant fleet of seven times the "western", by the southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean to East Africa, visited more than 30 countries, with China's silk, porcelain, tea, copper and iron trade equivalent to the countries, in return for the spices, jewelry, ivory and medicinal materials, etc.In Europe, in the early stages of feudal society, international trade was concentrated in the eastern Mediterranean. During the eastern Roman empire, Constantinople was the international trade center of the emperor. 7 - the 8th century AD, the arabs in control of the Mediterranean trade, through the trafficking of African ivory, Chinese silk, the far east of spices and precious stones, Europe, Asia, Africa trade intermediaries on three continents. Ever since the 11th century, with the Baltic coast of northern Italy and the rise of cities, the scope of international trade gradually expand to the whole of the Mediterranean Sea and the north sea, the Baltic and black sea coast. At that time, the trading centers of southern Europe were some cities of Italy, such as Venice and Genoa. The trading centers of northern Europe were some cities of the hanseatic league, such as Hamburg and lubberk.To sum up, the former international trade of capitalist society served the interests of slave owners and feudal landlord class. With the improvement of social productivity, the division of labor and the development of commodity production, international trade has been expanding. However, due to the limitation of production mode and traffic conditions, the main purpose of the commodity production and circulation is in order to meet the need of exploiting class luxury life, trade mainly limited within a state, between Eurasia and international trade in the slave society and feudal society economy occupies an important position, is not the scope of trade and commodity varieties has great limitations, trade activities don't happen very often. Then, in the 15th century "great geographical discovery" and the resulting the colonial expansion of European countries are greatly the development of the state, the trade between the starting a true sense of "world trade", in a capitalist society obtained a wide range of international trade development.
The classification of international trade
1. International Trade can be divided into import Trade according to the direction of commodity movement. 2. Export Trade: Export the goods or services of the country to other countries. 3. Transit Trade: goods of country A are transported to market of country B through the territory of country C, which means Transit Trade for country C. At present, WTO member states are not engaged in transit trade with each other due to the obstructive effect of transit trade on international trade. Import trade and export trade are for each transaction, for the seller, export trade, for the buyer, import trade. In addition, goods imported into the country are re-exported when they are re-exported; Goods exported abroad are called re-imports when they are imported into the country. International Trade can be divided into 1. Visible Trade: the import and export of goods in physical form. For example, machines, equipment, furniture and so on are goods in physical form. The import and export of these goods is called tangible trade. 2. Invisible Trade: the import and export of technology and services without physical form. The transfer of patent right, tourism, cross-border service of financial insurance enterprises and so on are goods without physical form, and their import and export is called intangible trade. Three, according to the producer and consumer in the Trade relations can be divided into 1 of international Trade, Direct Trade, Direct Trade) : refers to the commodities producers and consumers not to buy and sell goods through third countries. The export side of trade is called direct export, while the import side is called direct import. 2 Indirect Trade (Indirect Trade) and entrepot Trade, Transit Trade) : refers to the commodity producer and consumer of through third countries the behavior of traded goods, producer of Indirect Trade are called Indirect exporter, consumer is called Indirect importer, and a third country is entrepot trading nation, is the third country is in entrepot Trade. According to the content of trade, it can be divided into service trade, processing trade, commodity trade and general trade.
What are the aspects of international trade
International Trade, also known as Trade, refers to the Trade of goods and services across national borders. It is generally composed of import Trade and export Trade, so it can also be called import and export Trade.International trade can be divided into:(1) Visible Trade: import and export of goods in physical form. For example, machines, equipment, furniture and so on are goods in physical form. The import and export of these goods is called tangible trade.(2) Invisible Trade: the import and export of technology and services without physical form. The transfer of patent right, tourism, cross-border service of financial insurance enterprises and so on are goods without physical form, and their import and export is called intangible trade.International trade can be divided into:(1) Direct Trade: refers to the behavior of commodity producing countries and consumer countries not to buy or sell commodities through a third country. The export side of trade is called direct export, while the import side is called direct import.(2) Indirect Trade (Indirect Trade and entrepot Trade, Transit Trade) : refers to the commodity producer and consumer of through third countries the behavior of traded goods, producer of Indirect Trade are called Indirect exporter, consumer is called Indirect importer, and a third country is entrepot trading nation, is the third country is in entrepot Trade.According to the content of trade: service trade, processing trade, commodity trade, general trade.International trade in goods belongs to the scope of Commodity Exchange, and domestic trade is no different in nature, but because it was conducted among different countries or regions, so compared with domestic trade has the following features:(1) the international goods trade involves different countries or regions in terms of policy measures, law system there may be differences and conflicts, and language differences in culture, social customs and so on, the issues involved is far more complicated than the domestic trade.(2) generally, the volume and amount of international trade in goods are large, the transportation distance is long and the performance time is long, so the risks borne by both parties are much greater than the domestic trade.(3) international trade in goods is vulnerable to political and economic changes, bilateral relations and changes in international situation in the countries where both parties are located.(4) in addition to the two parties involved in the international trade of goods, cooperation and cooperation between the departments of transportation, insurance, banking, commodity inspection and customs are also needed. The process is much more complicated than domestic trade.
What is the development trend of international trade
Economic globalization with trade globalization as its primary content has exerted a profound influence on China's economic and commercial development. The current development trend and characteristics of international trade can be summed up in six aspects: 1. 2. The trade pattern centering on developed countries remains unchanged, and China has become a new force for the growth of international trade. 3. The multilateral trading system faces new challenges and the momentum of regional economic cooperation around the world is high. 4. The international trade structure is becoming more ** oriented, and trade in services and technology is in the ascendant. 5. The integration trend of trade and investment is obvious, and the leading role of transnational corporations in global trade is increasing day by day; 6. The fight between trade liberalization and protectionism is getting fiercer and fiercer, with various kinds of trade barriers emerging one after another.Economic globalization with trade globalization as its primary content has exerted a profound influence on China's economic and commercial development. In-depth analysis and grasp of the current international trade development trend and characteristics of scientific decision for us, in a larger range, a wider field and higher level of participation in international economic cooperation and competition, a good grasp of economic globalization brings opportunities, has the very vital significance.International trade has entered a new period of rapid growth, and trade is playing an increasingly prominent role in promoting economic growthWith the rapid growth of the world economy and the in-depth development of economic globalization, the growth of international trade has accelerated significantly and entered a new period of rapid growth. In 2004, global trade in goods grew by a nominal 21 per cent to a 25-year high. Under the influence of the strong growth of the world economy, the strong demand for energy, raw materials and commodities in the international market and the depreciation of the dollar, the global trade in goods and services has shown a rapid growth trend. The rapid growth of global trade is not only the result of scientific and technological progress, increased productivity and deepening international division of labor, but also promotes world production. Since the 1990s, the growth rate of international trade has continuously exceeded the growth rate of world production, resulting in the increase of foreign trade dependence of all countries in the world to varying degrees.The pattern of trade centered on developed countries remains unchanged, and China has become a new force for the growth of international tradeThe three major economies of the United States, Europe and Japan are major powers in the world economy and also play a leading role in international trade. Developed countries is now the world exports more than 70% of the share and share more than 90% of the country's trade in services, more importantly, through developing regional trade cooperation in the developed countries and the control of the multilateral trading system to dominate international trade order, and won the most trade interests in international exchange.China is prominent in international trade growth in recent years "bright spot", performance not only for China's share of global trade volume and ranking is rising, and the contribution to the global trade increment is more significant. In 2004, China's foreign trade volume reached $1.1548 trillion, more than Japan to become second only to the United States, Germany's third-largest trading nation, the world's total trade in goods and incremental proportion of 6.4% and 6.4% respectively.The multilateral trading system faces new challenges and the momentum of regional economic cooperation around the world is on the riseOn August 1, 2004, 147 wto members agreed on a new round of multilateral trade talks framework, the content of the agreement but relatively principle and general, each member in agriculture, non-agricultural market access issues still exist great differences. The year 2005 is a crucial year for the doha round of trade talks. Developed and developing members will negotiate on the substance of major issues at the Hong Kong ministerial conference in December. It is important to note that because of various members of the regional trade agreements vary widely, overlapping, some of the trade agreement is beyond the scope of the traditional lower barriers to trade and investment, this has brought a certain degree of impact on the multilateral trading system.At the same time, regional economic cooperation, mainly in the form of regional trade arrangements, has been developing at an accelerated pace. Second, major trading powers are pursuing the dominant power of regional trade arrangements. Third, the proportion of trade among the members of regional trade arrangements has increased further. In 2004, intra-regional trade accounted for more than 50 percent of total international trade. Fourth, competition between countries is changing to competition among regional economic groups. Regional trade arrangements have become strategic means for countries to strive for market resources, expand development space and enhance their international status.The international trade structure is becoming more and more human, and trade in services and technology is in the ascendant* * international trade structure and industrial structure upgrade are the backing, the change tendency has the following two prominent features: one is accompanied by the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, the fast development of global trade in services. Over the past 20 years and more, international trade in services has expanded from 360 billion us dollars in 1980 to 2.1 trillion us dollars today, accounting for 19% of global trade. In terms of industry structure, service trade is increasingly oriented to emerging service industries such as finance, insurance, telecommunications, information and consultation. The share of traditional transportation and tourism continues to decline. In terms of regional distribution, the share of service trade in developing countries continues to expand, especially in east Asia. Second, the status of high-tech products in the trade of manufactured goods has been greatly increased, especially in the export of ict products. At the same time, because the multinational companies are represented by information technology in the high-tech industry transfer to developing countries, developing countries in recent years, technology-intensive products exports accounted for the proportion of the global rapid rise.The trend of trade and investment integration is obvious, and the leading role of transnational corporations in global trade is increasing day by dayUnder the impetus of the economic globalization, the production factors, especially the capital flow more freely on a global scale, multinational companies through the establishment of production on a global scale and marketing network, to promote the integration of trade and investment is increasingly, and has a profound influence on international economic and trade pattern. First, transnational corporations have become the core force in resource allocation worldwide. At present, there are 62,000 transnational corporations in the world, which not only control 13 percent of global production and 70 percent of global technology transfer, but also 23 percent of global international trade and 90 percent of foreign direct investment. Second, the international trade competition has changed from a comparative advantage to the number of transnational corporations and the ability to integrate resources in the international arena. This means that the more enterprises a country has an international competitive advantage, the more resources it can integrate with other countries in the international division of labor. Third, the pattern of international trade has shifted from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade and intra-company trade. The main performance is that the trade of intermediate products and parts has increased in the international trade. Fourth, the industrial transfer of transnational corporations has been accelerated continuously, and the proportion of processing trade in the whole international trade has been continuously increased, which has become a growth point of foreign trade of developing countries.The fight against trade liberalization and protectionism is intensifying, with various kinds of trade barriers emerging one after anotherDriven by economic globalization, countries all over the world have more and more frequent economic exchanges, and trade liberalization has become an irreversible trend. However, as the scale of international trade continues to expand, the possibility of trade frictions will be greater. At present, the imbalance of the economic prosperity of all countries, the exclusiveness of regional trade groups and the polarization of trade distribution interests are all important reasons for the endless emergence of trade protectionism.
The advantages of international trade
International trade:International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services between countries (or regions) of the world. It is all countries (or regions) in the international division of labor on the basis of the main form of mutual contact, reaction (or area) all over the world in economic interdependence, is made up of the sum of national foreign trade.Benefits:1. Adjust the supply and demand relationship in various markets.2. Promote the full use of production factors.3. The important basis for countries to participate in international trade is comparative advantage and comparative advantage.4. Improve production technology and optimize domestic industrial structure.5. The development of international trade by increasing fiscal revenue and improving national welfare can open up a source of fiscal revenue for a government.Strengthen economic ties and promote economic development.
What does trade mean
Trade, which is a commercial activity, is the trade of goods or services on the premise of equality and mutual desire.1, the trade was conducted in the trading market, the most primitive form of trade is a barter, the direct exchange of goods or services, modern trade generally equal to a medium for trade substitution;Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while that between more than two traders is called multilateral trade.3, Trade, English interpretation of the Trade, the Trade is the activity of buying, shot, or exchanging goods or services between people, firms, or countries.
The difference between trade and trade
Trade: voluntary exchange of goods or services. Trade is also called business. Trade takes place in a city. The most primitive form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods or services. Modern trade is generally negotiated through a medium, such as **. The advent of ** (and subsequent letters of credit, notes and non-physical **) greatly simplified and facilitated trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, and more than two traders is called multilateral trade. There are many reasons for trade. Because of the specialization of the labor force, individuals are only engaged in a small category of work, so they must trade to obtain the daily necessities of life. Trade between the two regions is often due to the relative advantages of one place in the production of certain products, such as better technology and easier access to raw materials.Now only through the trade is not a pure domestic exchange of goods and the payment way, and development to the labor and commodities exchange between countries, trade way varied also: if you have any overland trade, transportation by sea, air transport trade and mail-order trade, involving third party merchant, a unilateral import and unilateral export, and spot trade, barter trade and so on.Trading: also called buying and selling. A transaction is a business in which the buyer and the seller negotiate over a product or business information. Transactions refers to the exchange of value between two parties in the medium of money. It's a currency medium, not a barter. The development direction of the transaction is basically tilted towards platform trading.Trade and trade are two people's different fields of development.